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Restorative Justice: An Annotated Bibliography

Basic Resources

Global Ministries published these resources for a 2002-2003 mission study. For copies, please check your church, local church, or second hand books sources online.

Restorative Justice: Moving Beyond Punishment by Harmon Wray with Leader's Guide by Brenda Connelly.

The past 20 years have seen a tremendous increase in the population of U.S. prisons. We have seen children who have committed crimes sentences to prison terms that will end long into their adulthood. Some prisons are run by corporations under government contract. Racial profiling, the death penalty, the rights of victims are all issues that impact and often divide Americans and United Methodists. The Book of Resolutions of the United Methodist Church devotes many pages to these issues and demands a response by the church. Harmon Wray writes a book that demands our attention and response. The Leader's Guide by Brenda Connelly offers a varied program of group activities designed for four two-hour sessions. Worship and Bible study are included in all sessions.

Youth Video with Guide

Justice 4 All

What happens when young people come into contact with the criminal justice system in the United States? This 20-minute video, broken into segments to use with a youth group or church school class, presents issues of justice and programs of restorative justice for young people. Includes a booklet of suggestions for presentation, discussion and action with resource list. Also informative for adult audiences - especially those interested in issues facing youth today.

Theology and Foundations

A. Companion, Peace and Justice Shall Embrace: Toward Restorative Justice, a Prisoner's Perspective. iUniverse.com, 2001.

Practical, Biblical and human critique of the U.S. criminal justice systems from a priest-prisoner's perspective, with proposals and models for restorative justice reforms. Topics include: the relationship of poverty, race, mental illness and drug addiction to incarceration; capital punishment; the consequences of three-strikes and minimum-mandatory sentencing; the effects of politics on policy; inadequate legal representation for the poor.

Bazemore, S. Gordon, et al, eds. Restorative Community Justice : Repairing Harm and Transforming Communities. Anderson Pub Co, 2001.

Explores the foundations, stakeholders and organizational roles involved in restorative justice.

Braithwaite, John. Restorative Justice and Responsive Regulation (Studies in Crime and Public Policy) 2001.

Breton, Denise and Stephen Lehman. The Mystic Heart of Justice: Restoring Wholeness in a Broken World. Swedenborg Foundation, 2001.

Critique of the existing justice system, examining the pervasive feelings of guilt and failure, the sense of separateness that all external reward-and-punishment systems create.

Burton-Rose, Daniel, et al, eds. The Celling of America: An Inside Look at the U.S. Prison Industry. Common Courage Press, 1998.

Written by persons in prison about the conditions there.

Christie, Nils. Crime Control as Industry: Towards Gulags, Western Style. Routledge, 1993.

Argues that crime control, rather than crime itself, is the real danger for our future.

Close Encounters of the Justice System Kind: Theme Action Course for Older Youth. Sharon K. Youngs and Beth Basham. Presbyterian Distribution Service, 800-524-2612, 1997.

Covert, Henry G. Ministry to the Incarcerated. Loyola Press, 1995.

Explains how the inmate stresses of low self-esteem, guilt, unrealistic expectations can be major obstacles to rehabilitation and spiritual healing.

Cragg, Wesley. The Practice of Punishment : Towards a Theory of Restorative Justice (Readings in Applied Ethics) Routledge 1992). 

Offers a comprehensive study of punishment that identifies the principles of sentencing and corrections on which modern correctional systems should be built.

Dear, John. Peace Behind Bars: A Peacemaking Priest's Journal from Jail. Theological Book Service, 1995.

Helps us to glimpse the world of prisoners and the soul of a committed Christian peacemaker.

Donziger, Steven R. The Real War on Crime: The Report of the National Criminal Justice Commission. Harper Perennial, 1996.

Examines a wide range of issues, including prison populations, crime rates, law enforcement, racial bias in the criminal justice system, and alternatives to incarceration.

Hadjor, Kofi Buenor. Another America, The Politics of Race and Blame, South End Press, 1995.

Hadley, Michael L. The Spiritual Roots of Restorative Justice. State University of NY, 2001.

Explores the concept of restorative justice in diverse spiritual traditions

Justice or "Just Deserts"? an Adult Study of the Restorative Justice Approach, Virginia Mackey and Carolyn Shadle. Presbyterian Criminal Justice Program, free, 888-728-7228.

Millard,Ted Grimsrud, Loren L. Johns, eds. Peace and Justice Shall Embrace : Power and Theopolitics in the Bible: Essays in Honor of Millard Lind. Pandora Pr USA, 2000.

Provides fresh exegetical insights from the Bible and penetrating theological analysis with regard to peace, justice, power, theopolitics. These essays shed new light on the politics of God and the peaceable character of biblical visions of justice.

Parenti, Christian. Lockdown America: Police, and Prisons in the Age of Crisis. Verso, 2000. Service Center Stock #3440,

Over 1.7 million Americans live in prisons, a 300% increase since 1980. In documenting the horrors corporate prisons, gang sweeps, border raids, and jailhouse violence, the author moves toward a deeper understanding of the links between crime and politics in a period of gathering economic crisis.

Reiman, Jeffrey H. The Rich Get Richer and the Poor Get Prison: Ideology, Class, and Criminal Justice, Allyn & Bacon, 1997.

Documents the extent of anti-poor bias in arrest, conviction, and sentencing practices and shows that the bias is conjoined with a general refusal to remedy the causes of crime - poverty, poor education, and discrimination. As a result, the criminal justice system fails to reduce crime.

Snyder, T. Richard. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Punishment. Wm. B. Eerdmans, 2000.

Confronts the spirit of punishment that permeates our culture and its deleterious effects on today's penal system and society at large. Rooted in experiences of prison reality, the book sets forth an original theory about the theological roots of our current punitive ethos.

Strang, Heather, and John Braithwaite, eds. Restorative Justice and Civil Society. Cambridge U, 2001.

Van Ness, Daniel W. Karen Heetderks Strong. Restoring Justice. Anderson Pub Co 1997).

Overview of restorative justice: Its theory, principles and practices all under the umbrella of God's love and compassion for humanity. Resources for follow-up.

Wilkinson, Henrietta. Victims of Crime: A Christian Perspective. Presbyterian Distribution Service 800-524-2612, #258-90-707.

Alternative Models

Braswell, Michael, et al. Corrections, Peacemaking, and Restorative Justice : Transforming Individuals and Institutions Anderson Pub Co, 2000.

Breton, Denise and Stephen Lehman. The Mystic Heart of Justice: Restoring Wholeness in a Broken World 2001. $24.95

An alternative justice system that is not from "outside in" but "inside out.": Looking at examples among Native Americans, the authors show that many human cultures over thousands of years flourished without resorting to reward-punishment systems. Indigenous peoples, for instance, affirmed the uniqueness of each individual, crafting social forms that drew out that uniqueness. The results were cohesive societies that can serve as models for changing our fundamental approach to fairness today.

Coleman, John W. Jr. Breaking Walls Building Bridges: Confronting Violence in the United States through Mission Outreach, General Board of Global Ministries, United Methodist Church , 1997. 

Tells the stories of community and institutional projects and programs. (For more information, click here.)

Furio, Jennifer. Restorative Justice. Algora Pub 2002.

Galaway, Burt and Joe Hudson, eds. Restorative Justice: International Perspectives. Criminal Justice Press and Kugler Publications, 1996.

Gerry, Johnstone. Restorative Justice : Ideas, Practices, Debates Willan Pub, 2002.

Mackey, Virginia. Restorative Justice: Toward Nonviolence, Presbyterian Distribution Service, 800-524-2612.

McGarrel, Ed, et al. Returning Justice to the Community : The Indianapolis Juvenile Restorative Justice Experiment. Hudson Institute 2000.

In the early 1990s the Kansas City Police Department experimented with a proactive philosophy of crime reduction called directed police patrolling. The initiative swam against the current of contemporary criminology, which maintains that crime is largely the mere result of poverty, racial injustice.

Miller, Melissa A. Family Violence, The Compassionate Church Responds. Herald, 1994.

Morris, Allison, Gabrielle Maxwell eds. Restorative Justice for Juveniles : Conferencing, Mediation and Circles.International Specialized Book Service, 2001.

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Guide for Implementing the Balanced and Restorative Model online document at http://www.ojjdp.ncjrs.org/pubs/implementing/contents.html.

Rigby, Andrew. Justice and Reconciliation : After the Violence . Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2001.

Scheck, Barry, Peter Neufeld and Jim Dwyer. Actual Innocence: When Justice Goes Wrong and How to Make It Right. Penguin Putnam, 2001. 

This book offers a look into the inadequacies of a criminal justice system in disarray through the stories of ten innocent people who were finally freed due to the work of dedicated crusaders.

Sharpe, Susan. Restorative Justice: A Vision for Healing and Change. Edmonton Victim Offender Mediation Society, 1998.

Strang, Heather,et al, eds. Restorative Justice. Ashgate Publishing Company, 2000.

Sullivan, Dennis and Larry Tifft. Restorative Justice: Healing the Foundations of Our Everyday Lives, Criminal Justice Pr, 2001.

Poses a radical critique of current criminal justice practices in favor of a restorative justice alternative. Then, it advocates a fundamental reformulation of the thinking and practices of restorative justice itself. The authors call for two sweeping revisions in restorative justice thinking: (1)replacing justice practices based on rights and "deserts" with approaches that seek to meet the needs of all -- including the harm-doer and the community, as well as those directly affected by a harm; and (2) applying these principles beyond the justice system to a broad range of social institutions, including families, schools, workplaces and neighborhoods. The book offers many concrete examples of the type of need-based restorative justice that is being proposed

Van Wormer, Katherine S. Counseling Female Offenders and Victims : A Strengths Restorative Approach. Springer Series of Family Violence. Springer Pub Co, 2001.

Walgrave, Lode, Gordon Bazemore eds. Restorative Juvenile Justice: Repairing the Harm of Youth Crime. Willow Tree Pr, 1999.

Zehr, Howard J. Changing Lenses: A New Focus for Crime and Justice. Herald Press, 1990.

Examines the paradigm of retributive justice and proposes restorative justice.

In National and Global Scenes

Barkan, Elazar, The Guilt of Nations: Restitution and Negotiating Historical Injustices. Johns Hopkins, 2001.

How should nations deal with gross inhumanity? Since World War II, individual nations and international groups have been struggling with that issue. Examines a wide range of historical injustices within and between nations over the past 50 years, urging that we move toward a theory of restitution that allows victims and perpetrators to negotiate their understandings of history and identity and to establish a basis for a common future. Most of Barkan's book is devoted to analysis of specifics: the Holocaust; U.S. internment of Japanese Americans; Nazi art in Russian museums and Nazi gold in Swiss banks; Japanese abuse of "comfort women"; Eastern Europe after decades of Communism; treatment of indigenous groups on the U.S. mainland, in Hawaii, in Australia, and in New Zealand; and the issue of restitution for slavery in the U.S. His final chapter draws lessons from these case studies, working "Toward a Theory of Restitution."

Biggar, Nigel, ed. Burying the Past: Making Peace and Doing Justice After Civil Conflict. Georgetown University Press, 2001.

Focusing the problems of establishing democracy after a transition from brutal, oppressive regimes -- and often-violent civil, prolonged conflict. The problem is to reconcile the populace so that reprisals and revenge do not undermine or subvert the newly establishing democratic principles, procedures, and compromises.

Boraine, Alex, A Country Unmasked: Inside South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission, London: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Botman, M. Russell and Peterson, Robin M., editors, To Remember and to Heal: Theological & Psychological Reflections on Truth and Reconciliation.

Galaway, Burt and Hudson, Joe, editors, Restorative Justice: International Perspectives, Monsey: Criminal Justice Press, 1996.

Hayner, Priscilla B., Unspeakable Truths: Confronting State Trror and Atrocity, Routledge, 2000.

Jeffrey, Paul, Recovering Memory: Guatemalan Churches and the Challenge of Peacemaking, Uppsala: Life and Peace Institute, 1998.

Krog, Antjie, Country of My Skull: Guilt, Sorrow & The Limits of Forgiveness in the New South Africa, New York: Three Rivers Press, 1998.

Maguire Marread Corriger, The Vision of Peace: Faith and Hope in Northern Ireland, Maryknoll: Orbis, 1999.

McCartney, Clem, editor, Accord: Striking a Balance; The Northern Ireland Peace Process London: Conciliation Resources, 1999.

Mulunda-Nyanga, Ngoy Daniel, The Reconstruction of Africa: Faith and Freedom for a Conflicted Continent, Nairobi: All Africa Conference of Churches, 1997.

Rigby, Andrew. Justice and Reconciliation: After the Violence. Lynne Rienner, 2001.

Ross, Rupert, Return to the Teachings: Exploring Aboriginal Justice, Toronto: Penguin, 1996.

Tutu, Desmond, No Future Without Forgiveness, New York: Doubleday, 1999.

Draws upon the experiences of persons in South America, South Africa and Europe.